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    英版特朗普到底是個什么樣的人,來了解一下

    Phil Boucher 2019年07月27日

    他是一位嚴肅的政客,性情急躁,說話尖刻。

    2016年5月,一位女士在布里斯托市一幢廢棄建筑物外的壁畫前走過,畫面上,有可能成為美國總統的唐納德·特朗普正在和鮑里斯·約翰遜熱吻。圖片來源:Credit:Matt Cardy—Getty Images

    對于自己入主唐寧街10號,也就是英國首相官邸的可能性,鮑里斯·約翰遜曾經說道:“我轉世成為一顆橄欖樹的可能性更大。”

    現在他成為了英國政府的頭號人物,以后周圍有雞尾酒扦子和瑪蒂尼酒杯時他也許會極為小心吧。

    不過,可以肯定的是,0.14%的同胞選了約翰遜雖然讓英國人五味雜陳,但在他擔任首相期間,政治絕不會變得枯燥無味。

    約翰遜本次當選的主要定位是能夠成功帶領英國脫歐的政客,但面對保守黨不斷減少的多數席位、記憶中最愛吵架的議會以及在歐洲問題上已經徹底分裂的民意,他的領導工作將遇到挑戰。

    以往的情況已經證明,約翰遜是一位非常成功的變革者和參選者,同時也出了名的滑稽、迷人、大嘴巴和精于計算,而且這幾種特質不相上下。他可以通過奇談怪論或者時機恰當的俏皮話讓最普通的經濟或政治話題變得趣味十足。他還以靈活變換政治立場著稱,精于施展不落俗套而且效果驚人的政治手段。但這些是否足以幫助他脫歐,或者重新將英國人團結在一起呢?

    而我們對鮑里斯·約翰遜又能有哪些期待呢?

    1. 冷酷無情

    任性的卷發、皺皺巴巴的西裝和看來無法把握的領帶,約翰遜給人的感覺或許是BBC情景喜劇中一位笨手笨腳的人物。然而,在鏡頭之外,人們都知道他是一位嚴肅的政客,性情急躁,說話尖刻。

    2008至2016年擔任倫敦市長期間,約翰遜的這些特征表現得尤為明顯。他成功地從致力于削減開支的財政大臣喬治·奧斯本那里爭取到了更多的警務資金。時任倫敦議會通訊主管的古托·哈里最近告訴《泰晤士報》,約翰遜曾經漫不經心地開除了倫敦警務處長伊恩·布萊爾爵士,當時約翰遜的話是:“這話不容易說出口,伊恩,我想要一位新的警務處長。”

    沒錯,2012年倫敦奧運會期間,乘高空滑索慶祝英國奪得首金的約翰遜因為卡在半空中而被眾人嘲笑,當時他還揮舞著兩面英國國旗。但大家也不應該忘記上述情景。

    “I’ve got more chance of being reincarnated as an olive,” Boris Johnson once said about the likelihood of him holding the keys to No. 10 Downing Street, home of the U.K.’s leader.

    Now that he’s got the top job, we have to assume he’ll be extremely careful around cocktail sticks and Martini glasses in future.

    One thing’s absolutely sure, however: while Johnson’s election by 0.14% of the British population has provoked mixed feelings in the U.K., politics is going to be very far from boring while he’s in Downing Street.

    Elected primarily as a politician who can successfully extricate Britain from the EU, Johnson faces the challenge of governing with an ever-shrinking Conservative majority, the most quarrelsome Parliament in living memory and a nation that’s completely divided over Europe.

    In the past, he’s proven to be a hugely successful campaigner and vote-winner who is famously funny, charming, offensive and calculating, in equal measure. Johnson is a man who’s able to make the most mundane of economic or political topics a source of entertainment through a quirky phrase or well-timed quip. He’s also been known to shift political positions on a dime and is a master of offbeat but shockingly effective politics. But will that be enough to steer him through Brexit? Or reunite the U.K.?

    What, then, can we expect from Boris Johnson?

    1. Ruthlessness

    With his wayward locks, creased suits and seemingly uncontrollable ties, Johnson may come across as bumbling character from a BBC sitcom. Away from the cameras, however, he’s known to be a serious politician, with a quick temper and caustic turn of phrase.

    This was apparent during his stint as Mayor of London from 2008 to 2016, when he managed to secure increased police funding from austerity-driven Chancellor George Osborne, and casually sacked the Police Commissioner, Sir Ian Blair, with the words: “There’s no easy way to say this, Ian. I want a new chief of police,” Guto Harri, Johnson’s communications director at the London assembly, recently told The Times.

    Yes, people laughed at Johnson when he got stuck dangling on a zip-wire, waving a pair of Union Jacks as part of the London 2012 Olympic celebrations. But it’s also an image you don’t forget.

    2012年8月,時任倫敦市長的鮑里斯·約翰遜在倫敦奧運會的一個推廣活動中卡在了高空滑索上。圖片來源:Credit: Barcroft Media via Getty Images

    2. 《歐洲神話》

    1989至1994年,約翰遜作為《每日電訊報》駐布魯塞爾的記者創出了名堂。他并未向英國讀者詳細報道歐洲那些干巴巴的日常事務,相反,他把重點放在挖掘歐洲法律的細枝末節上,進而打造出被稱為《歐洲神話》(Euromyths)的系列報道,其中包括采用同等尺寸“歐洲棺材”的計劃以及監管水果進口的“香蕉警察部隊”。

    曾經擔任《泰晤士報》駐布魯塞爾記者的彼得·吉爾福德對《獨立報》表示:“他寫的那些故事比較反常,也就跟真實情況沾那么一點點邊。”吉爾福德還說,約翰遜把疑歐派新聞變成了“一種藝術形式”。

    曾經在《每日電訊報》擔任約翰遜責任編輯的麥克斯·黑斯廷斯也不認為他“適合擔任國家級職務”。

    2. “Euromyths”

    Johnson made his name as a Brussels reporter for the Daily Telegraph from 1989 until 1994. Rather than detail the dry, routine proceedings of the EU to his readers back in the U.K., however, Johnson instead focused on drawing out tiny details within EU legislation to create a series of what came to be known as“Euromyths”, such as plans to introduce same-size “eurocoffins” and a “banana police force” to regulate fruit imports.

    “He would write outrageous stories with only the slenderest connection of truth in them,” Peter Guilford, former Brussels correspondent for The Times told The Independent, adding that Johnson had turned eurosceptic journalism into “an art form.”

    His former editor at The Telegraph, Max Hastings, has also declared Johnson “unfit for national office.”

    鮑里斯·約翰遜在《每日電訊報》當記者及在《新政治家》周刊當編輯時的照片。圖片來源:Credit: Neville Elder—Corbis via Getty Images

    后來,英國議會就《歐洲神話》系列報道對約翰遜進行詢問,他則否認自己編造了這些故事。約翰遜回答說:“為全力反擊那些認為我們應該脫歐的人所付出的努力是巨大的,而且我們說的任何東西多少都有些神話色彩。”

    3. 換工作

    1988年,約翰遜因為捏造他人話題而被《泰晤士報》開除。后來,他在《每日電訊報》陷入了更為丟人的境地——約翰遜和校友(后承認犯有欺詐罪的)達瑞斯·古比交談的文字整理稿顯示,在一段1990年的錄音中,約翰遜正在籌劃襲擊《每日快報》記者斯圖爾特·科利爾,或者說要把后者打的“兩個眼圈烏青”,再“斷一條肋骨”。

    2004年,時任保守黨副主席、影子內閣人文藝術大臣的約翰遜再遭解雇,原因是人們發現他向保守黨領袖邁克爾·霍華德撒謊,隱瞞了自己和記者彼得羅妮拉·懷亞特四年的婚外情。2018年,擔任外交大臣的約翰遜因為對首相特蕾莎·梅的脫歐政策不滿而辭職。

    4. 種族主義言論

    在2002年托尼·布萊爾訪問非洲時,約翰遜發表了“著名言論”,將當地人稱為“帶著西瓜笑臉、揮舞旗子的小黑崽子”。

    2006年,他說巴布亞新幾內亞是“弒君和食人狂歡”之地。第二年他又把美國總統候選人希拉里·克林頓比作“精神病院的虐待狂護士”。

    此外,約翰遜還“成功地”用“半肯尼亞血統”侮辱了美國總統貝拉克·奧巴馬,用粗俗的詩來諷刺土耳其總統雷杰普·塔伊普·埃爾多安,并指責歐盟欲對要脫歐的英國施以納粹式的“懲罰性打擊”。

    更近一些,也就是2018年8月,他又說穆斯林女性的面紗“令人感到壓抑、怪異而且令旁人害怕”,而且還說“打扮的像郵筒一樣出門絕對很可笑”。

    Johnson was later questioned about these “Euromyths” in Parliament, but denied making them up. “There is a great deal of effort being made to deprecate those who think we should leave the EU and everything we say is somehow mythical,” he replied.

    3. Job changes

    Sacked by the Times in 1988 for making up quotes, Johnson faced even greater disgrace at the Daily Telegraph when a 1990 tape surfaced of him plotting to have Daily Express journalist Stuart Collier assaulted—or given “a couple of black eyes” and a “cracked rib”, according to a transcript of his conversation with school friend (and later convicted fraudster) Darius Guppy.

    In 2004, Johnson was also sacked as Conservative party vice-chairman and Shadow Arts Minister when it emerged that he lied to leader Michael Howard about a four-year affair with journalist Petronella Wyatt. In 2018, he also walked out of Theresa May’s cabinet over her handling of Brexit.

    4. Racist comments

    When Tony Blair visited Africa, in 2002, Johnson famously described the locals as “flag-waving piccaninnies” with “watermelon smiles”.

    In 2006, he described Papua New Guinea as a land of “orgies of cannibalism and chief-killing”. The following year he compared U.S. Presidential candidate Hillary Clinton to “a sadistic nurse in a mental hospital”.

    On top of this, Johnson’s managed to insult US president Barack Obama over his “part-Kenyan” ancestry, composed a rude poem about Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and accused the EU of wanting to inflict Nazi-style “punishment beatings” on the U.K. because of Brexit.

    More recently, in August 2018, he described Muslim face veils as “oppressive”, “weird and bullying” adding that it’s “absolutely ridiculous that people should choose to go around looking like letterboxes.”

    2018年8月,英格蘭阿克斯橋當地民眾在Hillingdon Conservative Association辦公室外抗議鮑里斯·約翰遜針對穆斯林發表的言論。圖片來源:Credit: Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

    這番話遭到保守黨資深成員的憤怒譴責,外界要求約翰遜道歉。然而,保守黨在調查后裁定約翰遜有權通過“諷刺”來表達其觀點。他再次逃過一劫,而這要歸因于他的名聲和對幽默的使用。

    5. 失言

    雖然約翰遜的話大多被視為不著調的幽默,但有些也產生了嚴重后果。

    2004年,約翰遜成功地激怒了利物浦全體市民,因為他說在伊拉克被劫為人質且遇害的肯·比格利以及1989年造成96名利物浦足球俱樂部球迷身亡的希爾斯堡慘案讓利物浦人都沉浸在“受害者身份”中。

    2017年,時任英國外交大臣的約翰遜說擁有英國伊朗雙重國籍的女士納扎寧·扎格里-拉特克利夫“只是教新聞的”,結果直接導致后者在伊朗被捕入獄,而且她“進行反伊朗政府宣傳”的證據就是約翰遜的這句話。扎格里-拉特克利夫一直未被釋放,最近她為了爭取醫療權而開始絕食。

    6. 脫歐支持者

    約翰遜先生決定支持脫歐改變了英國脫歐公投的進程。他在一夜之間成了脫歐運動的推動者,坐著紅色流動競選巴士游走于英國各地,而且語言親切,對英國脫歐的樂觀態度既堅定不移,又有感染力。

    His comments triggered a furious response from senior Conservatives and demands for an apology. A party investigation, however, ruled that Johnson was entitled to use “satire” to make his point. Once again, he survived thanks to his reputation and use of comedy.

    5. Gaffes

    While Johnson’s comments have largely been treated as misguided humor, some have had huge repercussions.

    In 2004 he managed to offend the entire city of Liverpool by claiming they wallowed in “victim status” over the murder of Ken Bigley, who had been taken hostage in Iraq, and the 1989 Hillsborough football stadium disaster, which claimed the lives of 96 Liverpool FC supporters.

    In 2017, when UK foreign secretary, his statement that British-Iranian Nazanin Zhagari-Ratcliffe was “simply teaching people journalism”, directly led to her imprisonment in Iran when it was used as evidence of her “propaganda against the regime”. Zhagari-Ratcliffe remains in prison and recently went on hunger strike over her access to medical treatment.

    6. Brexiteers

    Mr Johnson’s decision to support Vote Leave was a game-changer in the Brexit referendum. Overnight, he became the impetus behind the leave campaign, touring the U.K. in his red battle bus with a jovial turn of phrase and a relentless, infectiously upbeat approach towards Brexit.

    2019年7月22日,正在角逐保守黨黨魁職位的鮑里斯·約翰遜離開在倫敦威斯敏斯特的辦公室,身邊環繞著警衛和媒體人士。圖片來源:Credit: Simon Dawson—Bloomberg via Getty Images

    約翰遜可以把類似自由市場觀念的枯燥話題變得易于理解而且有趣。實際情況證明這樣的搭配不可阻擋——就像他說脫歐后英國每周可以節省3.5億英鎊一樣,后來證明此言純屬無稽之談。所以,可以預計會有好多口號,有高漲的熱情,對細節的關注則可能不太多。

    7. 特朗普

    唐納德·特朗普一直在反復稱贊約翰遜,而且支持他競選英國首相。爭奪保守黨黨魁期間,約翰遜在一場直播電視辯論中也沒有為報告遭泄露的英國駐美大使金·達羅克爵士辯護。

    本周二約翰遜在保守黨選舉中獲勝。特朗普隨后在推特上寫道:“祝賀鮑里斯·約翰遜成為英國新任首相。他會很出色!”

    8. 政策搖擺

    2008年成功當選倫敦市市長時,批評者將約翰遜描述為懶惰的種族主義者,厭惡女性而且恐同。隨后約翰遜卻徹底擊碎了這些批評言論,他聘請了四位同性戀者進入他的最高市政管理團隊,還聘請了一位穆斯林學者、一位錫克教徒以及加勒比黑人社區的幾位領導成員。

    約翰遜還為他的自由社會政策奮斗,比如基本生活工資,而且第二次為保守黨拿下了倫敦市長職位,甚至是在他的牛津老同學大衛·卡梅隆領導的英國保守黨政府難以獲得普遍支持的情況下。

    9. 大目標

    擔任倫敦市長期間,約翰遜起草了在泰晤士河口修建新機場(名為“鮑里斯島”)的計劃,推廣過在泰晤士河上造“花園橋”的想法,宣布倫敦的歐式彎曲大巴不合法,還引進了超級成功的公共自行車項目(即“鮑里斯自行車”)。

    約翰遜顯然喜歡大目標,而且不怕投入資金,就算這些計劃未能取得成果——上述花園橋設想最近泡湯,但已經耗資5350萬英鎊。

    10. 個人丑聞

    2019年6月22日(周五)凌晨0:24,警察接到報警后來到約翰遜和女友卡麗·西蒙茲在倫敦的公寓,原因是鄰居擔心“一位女士的安危”。

    兩人的高聲爭吵差點兒毀了約翰遜的首相征程。但約翰遜安然度過了這場風暴,這在一定程度上得益于幾天后一張順利刊登出來的照片,內容是他和西蒙斯在鄉間安靜地交談。

    不過,這只是約翰遜諸多登上頭條的個人“事跡”中的一件——尤其是2013年爆出的消息,即約翰遜和律師瑪麗娜·惠勒結婚后,他的藝術顧問海倫·麥金太爾在2009年為他生了一個女兒。此事在四年后才浮出水面的原因是法院裁定公布該消息符合公眾利益。

    約翰遜在1993年和首任妻子阿萊格拉·莫斯廷-歐文離婚,兩人共同生活了五年。此外,他還被爆與記者安娜·法扎克利以及上文提到的專欄作家彼得羅妮拉·懷亞特有染。(財富中文網)

    譯者:Charlie

    審校:夏林

    His ability to turn dry topics such as free-market ideology into something that was understandable and fun proved to be an irresistible combination—as was his claim that the U.K. could save £350 million a week by leaving the EU, which was later proven to be an outright fabrication. So, expect lots of slogans, lots of enthusiasm—and perhaps not too much attention to detail.

    7. Trump

    Donald Trump has repeatedly praised Johnson and supported his campaign to become prime minister. During the Conservative leadership campaign, Johnson also did not defend the leaked reports of British Ambassador Sir Kim Darroch in a live TV debate.

    “Congratulations to Boris Johnson on becoming the new Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He will be great!” Trump tweeted after Johnson won the Conservative election on Tuesday.

    8. Policy swings

    Critics decried Johnson as lazy, racist, misogynist, and a homophobe during his successful attempt to become London mayor in 2008. He then turned the tables on his critics completely, employing four gay men in his top team at City Hall, along with a Muslim academic, a Sikh and leading members of the afro-Caribbean community.

    Johnson also championed liberal social policies, such as a living wage, and won a second term for the Conservatives in London, even as the Conservative national government run by his old Oxford classmate, David Cameron, was struggling with its popularity.

    9. Big Ideas

    As mayor of London, Johnson drew up plans for a new airport in the Thames Estuary (known as “Boris Island”), promoted the idea of a “Garden Bridge” across the River Thames, outlawed European-style “bendy buses” in the capital and brought in a hugely successful cycle hire scheme (“Boris Bikes”).

    Johnson clearly likes a big idea and is not afraid to pump in the finance, even if the plans don’t reach fruition: the garden bridge concept was recently scrapped at a cost of £53.5million.

    10. Personal scandal

    At 12.24 am on Friday, June 22, police officers were called to the London apartment shared by Johnson and girlfriend Carrie Symonds, following neighborly concerns about the “welfare of a female.”

    The screaming row threatened to derail Johnson’s bid to become PM. Yet, Johnson rode out the storm—partly through the help of a conveniently published photograph of him calmly chatting to Symonds in the countryside a couple of days later.

    Despite this, it’s just one of many personal incidents to have hit the headlines—not least the 2013 revelation that he fathered a daughter with arts consultant Helen MacIntyre in 2009, while married to barrister Marina Wheeler. This only emerged four years later after a court ruled it was in the public interest for the information to be released.

    His first marriage to Allegra Mostyn-Owen was dissolved in 1993, after five years together. At other times he has also been romantically linked to journalist Anna Fazackerley, along with columnist Petronella Wyatt.

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