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    全球時尚行業正在設計可持續未來

    Kate Dwyer 2019年07月29日

    更多的時尚及其他消費產品正在以“可持續”方式銷售,盡管就環境而言這種方式并無統一定義。

    應對氣候變化越發成為時尚公司的重要任務——最近一個推出供應鏈減排策略的是英國奢侈品牌博柏利。

    時尚界希望為地球做貢獻,因為服裝行業排放了約10%的全球溫室氣體,但與此同時,它們還要負責為消費需求提供來源更可持續的產品。

    可持續服裝聯盟的《2019年時尚行業脈搏報告》顯示,75%的消費者都認為可持續性極為重要。50%的購物者表示,如果競爭對手的導向更側重于環境和社會,他們就會更換品牌。但該報告指出:“公司實施可持續解決方案,從而抵消負面環境和社會影響的速度還不夠快。”

    為證明自己的可持續善意,博柏利的目標是到2022年將自家店鋪、辦公室、內部制造基地和經銷點的溫室氣體排放量減少95%,到2030年將整個供應鏈的溫室氣體排放量降低30%。

    考慮到服裝、飾品以及鞋類品牌的供應鏈遍及全球,以及規范所有制造商和整個運輸、經銷和零售渠道的碳排放具有怎樣的難度,第二個目標尤其有意義。

    同樣值得注意的是博柏利怎樣和其他公司以及整個行業中越來越多的時尚中堅力量一同成為2015年設立的科學減碳倡議組織的成員。

    科學減碳倡議

    此項倡議是碳信息披露項目、聯合國全球契約、世界資源研究所和世界自然基金會的合作項目。它包括575家承諾設立減排項目的公司,其中231家已經可以基于科學原則制定可衡量目標。

    其他已經承諾或者已經按照該倡議確立了目標的時尚企業包括香奈兒、古馳母公司開云集團、PVH Corp.、耐克、彪馬、VF Corp.、Hennes & Mauritz、Eileen Fisher Inc.、Guess?Inc.、Zara母公司Inditex S.A.、優衣庫母公司Fast Retailing Co.以及擁有Nine West、Gloria Vanderbilt和Bandolino等服飾品牌的One Jeanswear Group。零售方面,銷售時尚產品并且參加了此項倡議的公司有沃爾瑪、塔吉特、樂購、瑪莎百貨和家樂福。

    全球環境研究機構世界資源研究所的私營行業減緩氣候變化部門負責人辛西婭·科明斯說,對這些公司而言,減排規劃“已經覆蓋它們的所有產品和整個產業鏈”。因此,參與者“正在按照巴黎協定的目標積極解決氣候變化問題”,并確立減少溫室氣體排放的全球性目標。

    科學減碳倡議將“科學目標”定義為企業采用的減少溫室氣體排放量的目標。聯合國政府間氣候變化專門委員會于2018年發布的《全球變暖1.5攝氏度專題報告》指出,制定這些目標的共同目的是讓全球氣溫升幅遠低于比工業化以前氣溫高2攝氏度(35.6華氏度)的水平,同時使其不超過1.5攝氏度(34.7華氏度)。

    科明斯指出,今后此項倡議希望更全面地了解時尚行業,“以便弄清楚其價值鏈中碳排放最多的環節在哪里,最大的減排機會在哪里,從而向服裝公司說明此類措施如何匯聚成一個科學目標。”

    為了地球的大大小小的努力

    參與該倡議的公司還承諾對其具體目標保持透明,途徑是向公眾通報自己的進展。

    使用可回收材料是一種減排措施,此外還有一些基本方法,比如重新使用紙板箱或者提高經營效率。減少或替換源于石油的材料是另一種途徑。舉例來說,意大利紡織公司Orange Group以柑橘類植物為原料制造紡織品,而時尚品牌菲拉格慕就是它的客戶之一。

    博柏利去年決定不再燒掉未使用的庫存,因為這樣做既有污染又浪費。此外,該公司大大小小的可持續措施總的來說都得到了順利實施。

    該時尚品牌發現,自身76%的直接碳排放都來自于零售業務,因此它在一些門店任命了責任主管,旨在幫助員工提高能效。

    同時,博柏利店鋪開始使用LED照明。該公司發表聲明稱:“我們將通過降低能耗節省下來的資金用于采購新的可再生能源。我們正在順利實現自己的RE100(即100%使用可再生能源電力)承諾,因為目前可再生能源占我們總能耗的58%(占我們所用電力的68%),遠高于去年的13%。”

    什么是可持續性?

    就像消費者著力追尋更有利于環境的生活一樣,更多的時尚及其他消費產品正在以“可持續”方式銷售,盡管就環境而言這種方式并無統一定義。

    科學減碳倡議等項目有助于這些品牌執行其可持續承諾,因為它們可以用這些項目制定的一系列標準來證明自己履行了承諾。與此同時,法國總統埃馬紐埃爾·馬克龍最近任命開云集團首席執行官弗朗克斯-亨利·皮諾特領導一個全球性時尚行業可持續項目,但還沒有出現有關推廣原則的消息。

    紐約時裝學院教授、紡織品開發和營銷系主任杰弗里·希爾伯曼說,“到目前為止還沒有人能真正確切地定義可持續性,所以很難想象怎樣通過監管”來防范營銷中的虛假表述(接受《財富》雜志采訪時,他正在考察北卡羅來納州的一個棉花農場)。

    在一些國家,確實有政府機構對企業的營銷用語追責。比如,目前挪威政府正在調查H&M“Conscious”系列夏季服裝的時尚營銷活動。

    在美國,聯邦貿易委員會針對營銷用語提供了指南,企業可以自愿遵守,但這也被視為一項監管授權。不過,該委員會目前尚未明確產品廣告中哪些內容會被視為“可持續性”表述。

    在頒布2012版修訂后環保營銷語言“綠色指南”后,聯邦貿易委員會表示它在定義可持續方面“缺乏足夠依據來提供有意義的指南”,對于天然和有機也是如此,因為每個詞都有很多種含義。

    不過,有理有據地說一家公司具有可持續性需要大量工作以及長期投入。科明斯認為:“我覺得企業需要采取許多措施,并將這些措施綜合起來才能宣稱自己具有可持續性。”

    她說:“但在我看來,它們需要對自身供應鏈的能效進行綜合性投資。對服裝公司來說,碳排放多數來自于其供應鏈的上游,包括開采原材料和在紡織廠[制造]的布料。”

    科明斯指出,要減排,一家公司可以轉向使用可再生能源,或者采用循環作業模式從而減少浪費的紡織廠。

    據全球性可持續倡議項目Fashion for Good的董事總經理凱特琳·萊伊介紹,還有一些獨立組織在進行可持續性方面的監督。該倡議得到了阿迪達斯、Galeries Lafayette Group、開云集團、PVH Corp.、Stella McCartney和塔吉特等公司的支持。

    凱特琳說:“和這些組織合作或者使用符合特定標準的材料都有助于整個行業以及消費者了解某個品牌在這方面處于怎樣的位置。”這些組織包括Road Map to Zero Programme、Sustainable Apparel Coalition、Better Cotton Initiative、Fair Wear Foundation、Cradle to Cradle Institute以及埃倫·麥克阿瑟基金會。

    前沿品牌

    一些品牌從一開始就公開了自己的可持續舉措。在這方面行之有效的公司之一是Reformation,它松垮的裙裝和低領上衣很受名人喜愛(該公司的網站上寫著:不穿衣服是最可持續的方案。我們則緊隨其后。)。

    由于缺乏布料可持續性評估標準框架,該公司公布了自己的布料標準。它的A級布料定義是“可快速再生,以植物為原料而且具有循環利用潛力”,比如可回收棉花、天絲萊賽爾纖維和有機亞麻;B級布料則是“幾乎100%的天然或可回收布料”,如有機棉花、ENKA Viscose和天絲莫代爾纖維。

    Reformation的運營和可持續性副總裁凱瑟琳·塔爾伯特在致《財富》雜志的聲明中表示:“我們要讓這些標準盡可能的全面,考慮的因素包括用水量、能耗、所用土地、環境毒性、溫室氣體排放、人體毒性、可用性以及價格。2018年年底,A級和B級布料約占我們布料采購量的67%,而且我們仍然在針對天絲、亞麻和可回收棉花或羊毛開發新的制造方法和設計。”

    新一代購物者

    過去幾年,希爾伯曼注意到紐約時裝學院的學生要求差不多所有課程都講解可持續性問題。

    2015年,尼爾森公司在一份報告指出,如果某種產品以可持續為宣傳點,73%的千禧一代都愿意為它支付更高的價格,這也體現了同樣的興趣。

    尼爾森的這份報告稱:“雖然千禧一代成長的環境是過去100年里經濟最困難的時期,但他們依然最愿意為可持續產品多花錢——幾乎四分之三的受訪者都是如此。”(財富中文網)

    譯者:Charlie

    審校:夏林

    Fighting climate change is a growing priority for fashion companies, with British luxury house Burberry the latest to announce a strategy to slash emissions across its supply chain.

    But while the fashion industry wants to help the planet—the apparel business creates around 10% of global greenhouse gas emissions—companies are also responding to consumer demand for products with more sustainable origins.

    According to the Sustainable Apparel Coalition’s 2019 Pulse of the Fashion Industry Report, 75% of consumers view sustainability as very or extremely important. Half of shoppers said they would switch brands if a competitor is more environmentally and socially directed. Yet, “companies are not implementing sustainable solutions fast enough to counterbalance the negative environmental and social impacts,” the report said.

    Establishing its sustainable bona fides, Burberry is aiming to reduce climate-changing greenhouse gas emissions at its stores, offices, internal manufacturing, and distribution sites 95% by 2022, and by 2030 cut these pollutants 30% throughout its extended supply chain.

    The latter goal is especially significant, taking into account the global reach of an apparel, accessory, and footwear label’s supply chain, and how difficult it can be to regulate carbon emissions of every manufacturer, as well as throughout transportation, distribution, and retail channels.

    Equally noteworthy is how Burberry has joined a broader effort among businesses, and a growing cadre of fashion names across the industry, as members of the Science-Based Targets initiative, started in 2015.

    Science-based targets

    The initiative is a collaboration among the CDP (formerly the Carbon Disclosure Project), United Nations Global Compact, World Resources Institute, and World Wide Fund for Nature. The coalition has 575 companies who’ve committed to create climate-change-reduction programs, of which 231 have reached the point where they can set measurable targets based on scientific principles.

    Other fashion companies who have either committed to create or have already set goals under the initiative include: Chanel, Gucci-parent Kering S.A., PVH Corp., Nike Inc., Puma SE, VF Corp., Hennes & Mauritz, Eileen Fisher Inc., Guess? Inc., Levi Strauss & Co., Gap Inc., Zara’s parent company Inditex S.A., Uniqlo’s parent Fast Retailing Co., and One Jeanswear Group, makers of denim brands such as Nine West, Gloria Vanderbilt, and Bandolino. Among retailers, whose sales include fashion, and are part of the initiative, are Walmart Inc., Target Corp., Tesco PLC, Marks & Spencer Group, and Carrefour S.A.

    For these companies, emission reductions are planned “across all their products, their whole value chain,” said Cynthia Cummis, director of Private Sector Climate Mitigation at the WRI, a global environmental research organization. As a result, participants are “aggressively addressing climate change in line with the ambition of the Paris Agreement” setting global goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    The Science Based Target initiative defines a “science-based target” as a goal adopted by a company to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These goals are set to meet broader objectives to keep global warming well below a level of 2°C (35.6°F) above pre-industrial temperatures, and not to exceed 1.5°C (34.7°F), according to benchmarks reported in the 2018 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C.

    Going forward, Cummis said the initiative wants to gain broader knowledge of the fashion industry, “to understand where the most emissions are along the value chain, where the biggest reduction opportunities are, and map out for apparel companies how those activities can add up to meet a science-based target,” Cummis explained.

    Small and big steps for the planet

    Participating companies in the initiative also pledge to be transparent about their nitty-gritty goals by keeping the public apprised about progress.

    Measures to reduce emissions can include using recyclable materials, but also something as basic as reusing cardboard boxes or creating operating efficiencies. Reducing or replacing petroleum-based materials is another step. For example, citrus-based textiles are made by Italian fiber company Orange Group, whose customers include fashion house Salvatore Ferragamo.

    Burberry’s sustainability efforts, large and small, in total go well beyond its decision last year to stop the practice of burning unused stock, seen as polluting and wasteful.

    Since the fashion house estimates 76% of its direct carbon emissions come from its retail operations, the company has appointed Responsibility Leaders in several stores to get staff to increase energy efficiency.

    The brand’s stores also have switched to LED lighting. “We then used the cost savings from energy reductions to finance additional renewable energy procurement,” the company said in a statement. “We are on track to achieve our RE100 commitments as we now obtain 58% of our total energy (including 68% of our electricity) from renewable sources, an increase of 13% from last year.” Throughout its supply chain, the brand is also moving toward renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power.

    What is sustainability?

    As consumers focus on pursuing eco-friendlier lives, more fashion and other consumer products are being sold as “sustainable,” although there isn’t a standard definition for what that means in terms of the environment.

    Projects like the Science-Based Targets initiative help brands back their sustainable claims with a set of standards to which they can point to as proof of their commitment. Meanwhile, French President Emmanuel Macron recently tapped Kering SA Chief Executive Officer Francois-Henri Pinault to lead a global fashion industry sustainability effort, but there’s been no discussion yet about marketing guideposts.

    “Since no one so far can really define sustainability exactly, it is hard to imagine how it can be policed” to prevent false claims in marketing, said Jeffrey Silberman, professor and chairperson of the Textile Development and Marketing department at the Fashion Institute of Technology, New York. (When reached by Fortune, he was in North Carolina visiting a cotton farm.)

    Some countries do have agencies in place to hold companies accountable for their marketing language. Norway, for example, is currently investigating H&M’s fashion marketing around its summer “Conscious” collection.

    In the U.S., the Federal Trade Commission provides guidance on marketing language, compliance with which is voluntary but is nonetheless weighed as regulatory authority. But the FTC so far hasn’t passed judgment on what constitutes “sustainable” in product advertising.

    With the 2012 release of revised “Green Guides” for environmental marketing language, the FTC said it “lacks a sufficient basis to provide meaningful guidance” on defining sustainable, as well as natural and organic, since each has various meanings.

    Regardless, being able to credibly say a company is sustainable requires a lot of work and longterm commitment. “I think it’s going to be a combination of lots of activities that companies are going to need to put in place to claim that they’re sustainable,” Cummis said.

    “But I assume it will be a collection of investing in energy efficiency in their supply chain,” Cummis said. “For apparel companies, the majority of emissions are primarily upstream in their supply chain, with the extraction of raw materials or the [manufacture of] fabric at the textile mills.”

    To cut down on emissions, a company could switch to textile mills using renewable energy, or have circular-business models that reduce waste, she said.

    There are also independent organizations doing sustainability oversight, according to Katrin Ley, managing director of Fashion for Good, a global sustainability initiative supported by companies like Adidas, Galeries Lafayette Group, Kering, PVH Corp., Stella McCartney, and Target.

    “Working with these organizations or using materials that meet particular standards all help the wider industry and consumers understand where a brand is on the spectrum,” she said. These organizations include the Road Map to Zero Programme, Sustainable Apparel Coalition, Better Cotton Initiative, Fair Wear Foundation, Cradle to Cradle Institute, and the Ellen MacArthur Foundation.

    Brands at the Forefront

    Some brands have been transparent about their sustainability initiatives since the beginning. One company doing this effectively is Reformation, a celebrity-favorite line known for blousy dresses and tops with low necklines. (Its website reads: “Being naked is the #1 most sustainable option. We’re #2.”)

    Because there is no standardized framework for evaluating the sustainability of fibers, the company has released its own set of fiber standards. Grade A fibers are “Natural fibers that are rapidly renewable, plant-based and have a potential for circularity,” such as recycled cotton, Tencel Lyocell, and organic linen; grade B fibers are “almost all natural or recycled fibers” like organic cotton, ENKA Viscose, and Tencel Modal.

    “We tried to make these standards as holistic as possible, taking into consideration water input, energy input, land use, eco-toxicity, greenhouse gas emissions, human toxicity, availability, and price,” said Kathleen Talbot, Reformation’s VP of Operations and Sustainability, in a statement to Fortune. “At the end of 2018, about 67% of our fabric purchases were our A & B rated fibers, and we are continuing to develop new fabrications and design into these highest impact fibers like Tencel, linen, and recycled cotton or wool.”

    A New Generation of Shoppers

    Over the past few years, Silberman has noticed students at FIT demanding the sustainability angle be covered in nearly every class.

    Reflecting this interest, a 2015 Nielsen report found 73% of millennials are willing to pay more for a product if it is marketed as sustainable.

    “Despite the fact that millennials are coming of age in one of the most difficult economic climates in the past 100 years, they continue to be most willing to pay extra for sustainable offerings--almost three-out-of-four respondents,” the Nielsen report says.

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